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Five genetic benefits that only a few people can have [Ciencia] – 11/18/2018


London .- Science fiction is filled with superheroes with supernatural gifts. But the truth is that some ordinary people have special powers and often do not.

There is a genetic advantage in very small parts of the population.

These benefits are caused by genetic mutations, a natural process that changes DNA.

Just as some people inherit genetic diseases, others gain more luck, inherit genes, and give unique abilities.

The BBC paper shows five examples of some of the benefits we can have because of our genes.

1. Perfect Underwater Vision

When we were in the water, when we opened our eyes, we saw that most of us were blurred.

This is due to a problem in physics. The density of water is similar to that of eyes, and refracted light does not enter the eyes.

This is why humans can only see well when they are in contact with the air.

But there is one exception: the Moken people living in the Andaman Sea between Burma and Thailand in the Indian Ocean.

This tribe is known as the "Gypsy" of the sea. Because they spend most of their time in the huts on water or boats and go to the ground to buy only supplies.

If you have the moken gene you can see that you are clear under the water.

This genetic mutation is believed to have been caused by Moken spending a lot of time in the water and collecting seabed and shark fishing on the sea floor.

Scientific studies published in the Journal of Current Biology in 2003 showed that the genetic mutation of the neck caused water to change shape under the eyes.

This allows the light to be refracted properly when you enter your eye and be clearly visible even when wet with water over 20 meters below the water.

2. Cold tolerance

Another genetic advantage observed in some indigenous peoples is their ability to withstand cold temperatures.

The normal temperature range of the human body is 36.5 ~ 37.5 ℃. So most people are well prepared to deal with a warmer climate than a cold climate.

Normal body can not withstand the extreme cold. But thanks to their special genes, there are people with that ability.

Inuits living in northern Russia or the Nenets living in the Arctic have adapted to the frozen temperatures.

Their bodies react differently from the cold. Because it is biologically different from the rest.

For example, they do not shake in colds, have few sweat glands, skin is warmer than normal and metabolism is much faster.

These techniques are entirely genetic. If you move to the middle of the Arctic and live for decades, you will not be able to master the amazing ability of people with these mutations.

3. Less sleep time

One of the skills you can have without belonging to any tribe is that it works well with less sleep than usual.

According to some studies, most people had to sleep between seven and nine hours to get a break.

Less sleep can cause mental or emotional stress and health problems.

However, in a study of twins in 2014, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine found that some people had a genetic mutation that requires less sleep time.

People with a mutated DEC2 gene have a more intense sleeping ability, making relaxation more effective.

If you take less than six hours of sleep, you will be completely relaxed and ready to start your day.

Experts, however, make it clear that this mutation affects very few people. Sleeping is less than 1%.

So, if you sleep, you might think it would be okay because you will have a genetic mutation. If you do not, you need more rest.

4. High density bone

This advantage seems to come from superhero comics. A character can be called a "man or woman with strong bones."

As you get older, most skeletons lose their density and bone mass. It is known as osteoporosis and can cause fractures and deformities.

However, there are people with mutations in the gene called SOST. SOST regulates the sclerostin protein that regulates and regulates bone growth.

Studies conducted by researchers and research scientists at Bothell's Chiroscience, Washington, say that people with this mutation do not lose bone chunks as they get older.

Over time, their bones continue to accumulate in density and mass, resulting in a much younger skeleton.

This mutation was found in some people from Afrikaner as the population of Dutch natives living in South Africa became known.

Now scientists are cloning this mutation and looking for ways others can reverse the skeletal aging.

5. Adaptation to height

The Andean community calls it "soroche," and those who have suffered will not easily forget it. It is a discomfort that can be felt by lack of oxygen at high altitude.

This highly sick or acidic disease usually causes dizziness, low pressure, headache and respiratory illness.

Move slowly, eat a little, do not make great efforts, chew coca. Some medication. But the truth is that too many people are falling into "apunados".

However, it is not a problem that affects people living in the mountains.

Studies conducted on the Quechua of the Andes and the Tibetans of the Himalayas have shown that they have a genetic advantage to adapt to their environment.

Their torsos have bigger and bigger lung capacity, which can incorporate more oxygen into each inspiration.

Most people produce a lot of red blood cells when there is little oxygen in the body, but fewer red blood cells.

Because these traits are part of the gene, they are retained even when moving to lower places.

Perhaps this mutation will not officially make them "superheroes," but it is more than a tourist trying to climb a mountain at the speed of an ant, sometimes overtaken by a place carrying multiple bags. Surely he believes he has superpower.

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