MRI brain scans in 40 patients (23 men and 17 women) showed changes in brain structure and functional connectivity measuring the relationship between different brain regions compared to the other 48 adults. Scans were performed between August 2017 and June 2018.
Ragini Verma, a professor of radiology and neurosurgery at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, said, "There was a group difference across the brain." In the area of the cerebellum, especially in the cerebellum, , Related to dizziness. "
According to this study, differences in connectivity were also observed in the auditory and temporal regions of the brain. However, the authors were unable to compare the appearance of the brain before the accident because the clinical significance of these results was uncertain and the patient had no initial MRI.
Moreover, these patterns are not suitable for a clear picture of a specific disease.
Although Verma has clinical symptoms such as a concussion, it is not clear that it resembles the image of a traumatic brain injury or concussion.
"It needs to be seen by saying that something has happened.
Jamshid Ghajar, MD, of the Stanford Concussion and Brain Function Center, said that researchers found the difference between the brain of a healthy controller and the people involved in the Cuban incident as "notable." "In particular, differences within the group. I wondered
"I think the jury discovered the cause, but apparently these patients are complaining of symptoms and measuring the disorder," said Ghajar, who is not involved in the new paper. "Something is going on, so I think we need to investigate further."
What did they hear?
Studies have shown that "sound is often associated with pressure or vibration sensory stimuli." Sensory stimuli are analogous to "embarrassing" in a car moving partially over the window. "
One patient listened to two pulses for 10 seconds while the other answered that they could hear for 30 minutes or more.
Could it really cause brain damage?
Previous studies have shown that although noise itself did not directly cause symptoms, auditory cues were not known to "cause sustained injury to the central nervous system."
Douglas Smith, director of the Brain Injury and Repair Center at the University of Pennsylvania, said in an interview with CNN: "We do not actually think this is a problem." We think that audible sound is the result of exposure.
"I know that there is no sound effect to cause a concussion-like symptom, and according to my research, a strong influence on humans requires a size of sound that can be perceived as very loud noise during exposure." Berlin had previously told CNN.
Similarly, the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation testify that they can not determine the source or cause of the disease in Havana. It is only "most likely to be related to trauma from a source other than nature".
What are the symptoms?
"If you bring one of these patients into the brain damage clinic and you do not know the background, you might think there is a traumatic brain injury caused by a car accident or army blowout." Dr. Randel Swanson, a brain injury rehabilitation specialist at the University of Pennsylvania, wrote in the medical journal JAMA:
Swanson and his colleagues examined patients and found various symptoms such as sharp ear pain, headache, ringing in one ear, dizziness, loss of direction, attention and mild traumatic brain injury or concussion.
The majority of patients also reported problems related to memory, concentration, balance, vision, hearing, sleep, or headaches lasting more than three months.
Swanson said, "It is like a concussion without a concussion."
Many have reported "mental fogging" or "slowing down" for months. Some people have complained of hypersensitivity and tension by meeting two criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. A worse job was also observed.
Three people eventually needed a hearing aid for moderate to severe hearing loss, and others were ringing in the ears or under pressure. It took more than half to get a prescription to take sleep or treat headaches. Many people could not come back to work at least for a certain period of time.
Doctors have pointed out that some of the patient's symptoms can not be seen in concussions, such as pain, which usually only affects the ear. Also, concussion patients often show rapid and complete recovery, but these patients have experienced symptoms for several months.
While doctors remain panicked, Cuban officials have strongly denied any target attacks on Havana's diplomats, and said their symptoms could be caused by other factors.
Officials have investigated similar cases in China. The US Department of State has issued health warnings as a result of a series of hearings when Cuba 's trainees were traumatized like Cuba.