Wednesday , April 14 2021

Why women are more likely to get Hiv infection



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Socio-cultural norms are still making a significant contribution to the spread of HIV / AIDS among women and girls in Uganda.

War on HIV / AIDS

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In November, the Worldwide AIDS Day (December 1), the Vision Group Media Platform publishes and publishes in-depth articles on the disease. HIV is a disproportionate disadvantage to women and teenage girls due to vulnerability created by unequal culture. Affects socio-economic status Vivian Agava.

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# GetTested4HIV

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For 32 years, Uganda and the rest of the world have suffered from HIV and AIDS, but no one has tried to save it. Men, women, infants, youth, and youth have all been infected and affected.

In Uganda, about 1.5 million people live with HIV / AIDS, but data analysis shows that more new infections occur in women than in men. For example, in 2015, 567 young people between the ages of 15-24 were infected with HIV every week and 363 of them were girls.

According to a 2016 report, 570 young women aged 15-24 have been infected with HIV every week in Uganda.

According to a 20-year study by the Oganda Virus Research Institute and the Medical Research Council in Kyamulibwa in the Kalungu region, when the results are published in 2015, women who have not been treated with HIV in Uganda are more likely than men I die quickly.

Studies have shown that the average life span of women who acquire HIV at age 15 is 37 and that of men is 42.

According to the 2017 Joint United Nations Program on HIV / AIDS, there are 750,000 women who are infected with HIV over the age of 15 and 440,000 men of the same age.

In the same facts data, the prevalence of women aged 15-49 compared to men in the same age group with a prevalence rate of 4.5% is 7.3%.

Why women cause more new infections

Women and teenage girls are more likely to take HIV than any other category.

Dr. Dan Byamukama, director of HIV / AIDS prevention at the Uganda AIDS Commission, says factors can be categorized as behavior, life, and society / structure.

Messages to parents and communities about HIV / AIDS play

Socio-cultural norm

Socio-cultural norms are still making a significant contribution to the spread of HIV / AIDS among women and girls in this country.

Charles Onyang, a health educator and HIV / AIDS focal point in the Morocco region, has reported on several cases of polygamy (despite decline), marriage of children, widowhood inheritance and sexual genital mutilation (FGM) Women with HIV / AIDS.

"We have older people marrying girls under the age of 18, but in many cases already have two or more wives who are more likely to deliver to their wives if they are infected with HIV / AIDS."

According to Avert, an international HIV / AIDS charity headquartered in the UK last year, one out of seven girls aged 15 to 19 in the world were married or joined the union.

A married girl is more likely to be hit or threatened by her husband and is more likely to be forced to portray her first sexual intercourse compared to a married person after she turns 19.

Children's brides can hardly make a wish, such as whether they will have a safe sex, or are at increased risk of getting HIV.

FGM is another route to HIV / AIDS among women and girls. Studies show that cutting multiple women using the same razor blade can be dangerous, "he added.

According to Byamukama, because of patriarchy, men make the most decisions in a relationship such as when a couple has sex. He added that the vast majority of women in Uganda are not authorized to negotiate safe sex. For example, if a man asks you to use a condom.

These scenarios put women at risk of becoming infected with HIV.

"Women need to empower women to negotiate for sex safety and demand testing for HIV / AIDS," he said.

Sex based violence

Dr. Yunia Mayanja of the Medical Research Council (MRC) and Dr. Yunia Mayanja of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence, also contributed to the increase in women's new HIV infections.

"We heard the story of a woman being right by her partner refusing sex," she says.

The Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS) 2016 showed a decrease in the prevalence of gender-bred violence (GBV), but the struggle to overcome it should not be stopped because the vice-president still exists.

In Uganda, 22% of women aged 15-49 reported experiencing sexual violence by an intimate partner, ranking first in Uganda compared to 8% of men.

poor

Byamukama points out that poverty is another key factor driving young and young women into premature marriages, gaining multiple sex partners, and ending trade sex.

All of this is vulnerable to HIV infection.

No knowledge of HIV prevention

Byamukama says only 46 percent of youth and young women (ages 15-24) know how to prevent HIV. The remaining 54% do not have accurate information on how to avoid transmission of HIV / AIDS.

On the other hand, the lack of access to preventive protection under women's control limits the possibility of protecting them, he added.

"Male condoms are popular, and men can use this condom to protect themselves against HIV / AIDS, while female condoms are very expensive and are not easily accessible," says Byamukama.

In 2016, only 900,000 female condoms were purchased, and in the same year, 300 million male condoms were purchased.

According to Byamukama, female condoms were not popular in Uganda, and activists demanded opening. Two years ago, health officials said they would stop buying condoms for women because of limited demand because they are idle at many health facilities across the country.

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One important element of fighting HIV / AIDS is the HIV test and many Ugandans accept the culture.

Trend reversal

Mayanja points out that women and girls are more likely to get HIV because of their greater biological risk because of the larger surface area of ​​the female reproductive tract where the chance of infection increases after exposure.

So what can I do to overturn the trend?

The government is involved in a variety of activities / programs to reduce HIV / AIDS infections among women and girls, with several partners at the local, national and international levels.

Last year, President Yoweri Museveni announced five tips to expedite the ongoing efforts to end HIV / AIDS in Uganda as a public health threat by 2030. The plan is to create a new, The country aims to create focus among young women and girls.

In 2017, the president also backed the "Make Girls a Girl" campaign, encouraging them to marry early and stay at school.

"When girls are encouraged to stay in school, they can postpone sexual intercourse until the end of school, which reduces their chances of quitting school, but there is the potential for HIV / AIDS through early intercourse," Bamamama said. It says.

He also pointed out that the government needs to develop programs to help women and girls empower themselves economically so they do not rely on men to create income.

Other organizations have collaborated with cultural and institutional leaders to remove practices such as forced child marriage, widowhood inheritance, and FGM.

Byamukama also suggested that women and girls should report publicly and publicly the violations of rape and labor, so that they can turn them into health facilities for post-natal care (PEP).

This disease, also known as post-exposure prevention, is a preventive medicine treatment that started after exposure to the pathogen to prevent infection.

On the other hand, Mayanja mentions a category that requires more effort.

Structural intervention

Government programs and research centers should prioritize interventions that minimize negative norms, power imbalances, decision-making structures and other socio-economic factors that affect women, gender minorities, and adolescent girls outside the context of research and research.

Research process and environment

In all research processes, intervention to analyze and integrate gender should be prioritized.

There must be an investment to create an environment that is beneficial for women, children, or adolescent girls or women minorities. Sex Change Monitoring and Assessment and Learning Government programs and research centers need to develop and implement gender monitoring and assessment and learning processes.

Eventually there is hope and the struggle continues. Experts believe that one day Uganda and the world will have no HIV / AIDS Scourge.

The numbers by continent are not different.

Since the onset of the HIV / AIDS epidemic, women around the world have been disproportionately affected by HIV in many areas.

Today, women make up more than half of people infected with HIV / AIDS. AIDS-related diseases are still the leading cause of death in women of reproductive age (15-44 years).

According to Avert, an international HIV / AIDS charity, especially young women (15-24 years) and teenage girls (10-19) have a very high percentage of new HIV infections.

In 2016, new infections in young women (15-24 years old) were 44% higher than men.

In eastern and southern Africa, young women account for 26% of new HIV infections, even though they account for only 10% of the population. Approximately 7,500 young women worldwide acquire HIV every week.

In East Africa and Southern Africa, young women acquire HIV 5-7 years earlier than their male colleagues. In 2015, an average of 4,500 new HIV infections occurred each week, twice the number of young men. In West Africa and Central Africa, 64% of new HIV infections among young people in 2015 were seen in young women.

Differences are particularly prominent in Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Guinea, and 15-19 year old girls are five times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age.

Editor's note: Empowerment makes women less vulnerable to HIV infection

In the case of new HIV cases, there is data that women are more affected than men.

The researchers identified several risk factors that make women more vulnerable to HIV infection. They can be classified as biological, behavioral, and socio-cultural.

I can not do anything about biological factors like anatomy of a woman, but I can do a lot about other factors. These factors include social and cultural factors, including women's disqualification, that make it impossible to negotiate a safe sex life for women.

According to the data, many people are afraid to talk about sex because of the way they grow, and they can not ask their spouse to test or use condoms.

When we are ready to celebrate World AIDS Day, all stakeholders must invest in women's empowerment, including economic aspects, as a way to protect against HIV and AIDS.

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