This handout photo, published by the European Space Agency (ESA) on October 16, 2016, shows the planet Mars from ESA's Mars Express orbit satellite webcam
On December 11, 2017, US President Donald Trump ordered NASA to prepare an astronaut to return to the moon. "Human mission to Mars and other destinations followed."
The dates set by the space agency are 2024 for the Moon and 2024 for Mars, but according to experts and industry officials, arriving at the Red Planet by then would not be able to exclude the Hercules effort on the scale of the Apollo program in the 1960s Is high.
NASA's executive director Jim Bridenstine said at this month's meeting, "The moon is proof of our ultimate mission to Mars.
"The moon is the fastest and safest way to get to Mars, so we go to the moon."
Obstacles do not contain as much technical or scientific content as budgets and political will, according to Robert Howard, who leads a laboratory that develops future space habitats at the legendary Johnson Space Center in Houston.
Participants look at posters at the National Academy of Sciences during the human and Mars Summit, which aims to advance humanity to the surface of Mars by the 2030s.
"A lot of people want us to have a moment of Apollo, and when the President gets up like Kennedy says, we have to do it and we want the whole country to be together," he said.
"If that happens, I will actually say 2027, but I do not think it will happen." In our current approach, I think we will be lucky by 2037 "
But Prime Minister Howard has said that if pessimistic and political dithering is to go forward, it could be "in the 2060s."
– Psychological challenge –
This astronaut's illustration shows that SpaceX's Big Falcon Rocket (BFR) rocket ferry is expected to arrive at Mars
All the basic work remains from designing, manufacturing and testing rockets and spacecraft to learning the best way to grow lettuce.
It will take at least six months, just as opposed to three days on the moon.
Because Mars and Earth have to change clothes every 26 months, the whole mission can take two years.
NASA's International Space Station scientist Julie Robinson stressed that astronauts should find ways to prevent long-term exposure to sun and space radiation.
"The second is our food system," she added. Current system system ideas "can not be wrapped, carried, or small enough to carry on Mars."
And there is a problem dealing with medical emergencies. Astronauts should be able to treat themselves when they have an accident.
NASA's planetary scientist Jennifer Heldman added:
One of the main complaints of Apollo astronauts was gloves. The gloves were too inflated and not proficient.
NASA is developing a new suit called xEMU for the first time in 40 years, but it will not be ready for the next few years to launch its first picnic on the International Space Station.
On Mars, dust is more of a problem than the moon. Apollo's astronauts returned massive amounts of moon dust to the module. Keeping it in the habitat will be important for missions that spend months on the red planet.
The image of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Satellite shows snow and ice accumulated during the winter covering the winter in the northern hemisphere of the Earth. Unlike Earth, this snow and ice are well known as carbon dioxide, dry ice.
No technology exists to exploit the resources of Mars to extract the water, oxygen, and fuel that humans need to live there, and the moon must be tested by the end of the decade.
Finally, the most fundamental question. How will you cope with the psychological stress that a group of people is totally isolated for two years?
It is not possible to communicate in real time with Houston's mission control. Wireless communications take between four and twenty-four minutes in one direction between planets. NASA plans to test delayed communications training in the future ISS.
Artificial intelligence should also be developed to support and guide astronauts.
A researcher who commissioned NASA to study the possibility of reaching Mars by 2033 concluded that its purpose was "not feasible".
"It's not just a budget," said Bhavya Lal of the Institute for Science and Technology Policy. "How much work can NASA do at the same time, not just the organization's bandwidth?"
The real time frame for Lal was in 2039.
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